♥History Of Cyb3r-Security♥
Many organisms evolve at the same time, each attempting to gain an advantage over the other. Criminals and “bad actors” who aim to manipulate device flaws for personal benefit – or just to make a point – have developed alongside cyb3r security and technology.
This arms race has been going on since the 1950s, and this article describes how cyb3r attacks and security strategies have evolved over the years.
THE SECURITY TIMELAPSE
|1940s||The time before crime|
|1950s||The phone phreaks|
|1960s||All quiet on the Western Front|
|1970s||Computer security is born|
|1980s||From ARPANET to internet|
|1990s||The world goes online|
|2000s||Threatsdiversify and multiply|
|2010s||The next generation|
How it started?
A research project started the history of cyb3r security. A man named Bob Thomas discovered that a computer programme could run through a network and leave a small trail behind it. Creeper was the name for the programme, which he programmed to run between Tenex terminals on the early ARPANET, printing the message “I’M THE CREEPER: CATCH ME IF YOU CAN.”
A man named Ray Tomlinson (yes, the same guy who invented email) saw this idea and liked it. He tinkered with the program and made it self-replicating—the first computer worm. Then he wrote another program—Reaper, the first antivirus software—which would chase Creeper and delete it.
It’s funny to look back from where we are now, in an era of ransomware, filelessmalware, and nation-state attacks, and realize that the antecedents to this problem were less harmful than simple graffiti.
And this was how the first virus was created. And this was how cyb3r security evolved as a matter of concern.
Though cyb3r security properly began in 1970s but the attacks commenced long back in the 1950s.
1950s: The phone phreaks in cyb3r security
The technological and subcultural roots of hacking are as much related to early telephones as they are to computers.
In the late 1950s, ‘phone phreaking’ emerged. The term captures several methods that ‘phreaks’ – people with a particular interest in the workings of phones – used to hijack the protocols that allowed telecoms engineers to work on the network remotely to make free calls and avoid long-distance tolls. Sadly for the phone companies, there was no way of stopping the phreaks, although the practice eventually died out in the 1980s.
The phreaks had become a community, even issuing newsletters, and included technological trailblazers like Apple’s founders Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. The mold was set for digital technology.
1960s: All quiet on the Western Front
The first-since forever reference to malevolent hacking was in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s understudy paper.
Indeed, even by the mid-1960s, most PCs were colossal centralized servers, secured away secure temperature-controlled rooms. These machines were exorbitant, so access – even to software engineers – stayed restricted.
Nonetheless, there were early introductions to hacking by a portion of those with access, frequently understudies. At this stage, the assaults had no business or international advantages. Most programmers were interested agitators or the individuals who looked to improve existing frameworks by making them work all the more rapidly or effectively.
In 1967, IBM welcomed school children to evaluate their new PC. In the wake of investigating the open pieces of the framework, the understudies attempted to test further, learning the framework’s language, and accessing different pieces of the framework.
This was an important exercise to the organization and they recognized their appreciation to “various secondary school understudies for their impulse to bomb the framework”, which brought about the advancement of safeguarding strategies – and conceivably the cautious mentality that would demonstrate crucial for designers from that point on. Moral hacking is as yet drilled today.
As PCs began to lessen in size and cost, numerous huge organizations put resources into advancements to store and oversee information and frameworks. Putting away them safely guarded got excess as more individuals required admittance to them and passwords started to be utilized.
1980s: From ARPANET to internet
The 1980s acquired an increment prominent assaults, including those at National CSS, AT&T, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The film War Games, in which a rebel PC program takes over atomic rockets frameworks under the pretense of a game, was delivered in 1983. This was that very year that the terms Trojan Horse and Computer Virus were first utilized.
At the hour of the Cold War, the danger of digital secret activities developed. In 1985, The US Department of Defense distributed the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (also known as The Orange Book) that gave direction on:
Evaluating the level of trust that can be put in programming that cycles characterized or other delicate data
What safety efforts makers expected to incorporate into their business items.
Notwithstanding this, in 1986, German programmer Marcus Hess utilized a web passage in Berkeley, CA, to piggyback onto the ARPANET. He hacked 400 military PCs, including centralized servers at the Pentagon, meaning to offer data to the KGB.
Security began to be treated all the more appropriately. Sagacious clients immediately figured out how to screen the command.com record size, having seen that an expansion in size was the main indication of expected disease. Online protection estimates consolidated this reasoning, and an unexpected decrease in free working memory stays an indication of assault right up ’til the present time.
1987: The birth of cyb3rsecurity
1987 was the birth year of commercial antivirus, although there are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product.
- Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST – which also saw the release of Ultimate Virus Killer (UVK)
- Three Czechoslovakians created the first version of NOD antivirus
- In the U.S., John McAfee founded McAfee (then part of Intel Security), and released VirusScan.
Also in 1987:
- One of the earliest documented ‘in the wild’ virus removals was performed by German Bernd Fix when he neutralized the infamous Vienna virus – an early example of malware that spread and corrupted files.
- The encrypted Cascade virus, which infected .COM files, first appeared .A year later, Cascade caused a serious incident in IBM’s Belgian office and served as the impetus for IBM’s antivirus product development. Before this, any antivirus solutions developed at IBM had been intended for internal use only.
By 1988, many antivirus companies had been established around the world – including Avast, which was founded by Eduard Kučera and Pavel Baudiš in Prague, Czech Republic. Today, Avast has a team of more than 1,700 worldwide and stops around 1.5 billion attacks every month.
Early antivirus software consisted of simple scanners that performed context searches to detect unique virus code sequences. Many of these scanners also included ‘immunizers’ that modified programs to make viruses think the computer was already infected and not attack them. As the number of viruses increased into the hundreds, immunizers quickly became ineffective.
It was also becoming clear to antivirus companies that they could only react to existing attacks, and a lack of a universal and ubiquitous network (the internet) made updates hard to deploy.
As the world slowly started to take notice of computer viruses, 1988 also witnessed the first electronic forum devoted to antivirus security – Virus-L – on the Usenet network. The decade also saw the birth of the antivirus press: UK-based Sophos-sponsored Virus Bulletin and Dr. Solomon’s Virus Fax International.
The decade closed with more additions to the cybersecurity market, including F-Prot, ThunderBYTE, and Norman Virus Control. In 1989, IBM finally commercialized their internal antivirus project and IBM Virscan for MS-DOS went on sale for $35.
1990s: The world goes online
1990 was quite a year:
- The first polymorphic viruses were created (code that mutates while keeping the original algorithm intact to avoid detection)
- British computer magazine PC Today released an edition with a free disc that ‘accidentally’ contained the DiskKiller virus, infecting tens of thousands of computers
- EICAR (European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research) was established
Early antivirus was purely signature-based, comparing binaries on a system with a database of virus ‘signatures’. This meant that early antivirus produced many false positives and used a lot of computational power – which frustrated users as productivity slowed.
As more antivirus scanners hit the market, cybercriminals were responding and in 1992 the first anti-antivirus program appeared.
By 1996, many viruses used new techniques and innovative methods, including stealth capability, polymorphism, and ‘macro viruses’, posing a new set of challenges for antivirus vendors who had to develop new detection and removal capabilities.
New virus and malware numbers exploded in the 1990s, from tens of thousands early in the decade growing to 5 million every year by 2007. By the mid-‘90s, it was clear that cybersecurity had to be mass-produced to protect the public. One NASA researcher developed the first firewall program, modeling it on the physical structures that prevent the spread of actual fires in buildings.
The late 1990s were also marked by conflict and friction between antivirus developers:
- McAfee accused Dr. Solomon’s of cheating so that testing of uninfected discs showed good speed results and the scan tests of virus collections showed good detection results. Dr. Solomon’s filed suit in response
- Taiwanese developer Trend Micro accused McAfee and Symantec of violating its patent on virus scan-checking technology via the internet and electronic mail. Symantec then accused McAfee of using code from Symantec’s Norton AntiVirus.
Heuristic detection also emerged as a new method to tackle the huge number of virus variants. Antivirus scanners started to use generic signatures – often containing non-contiguous code and using wildcard characters – to detect viruses even if the threat had been ‘hidden’ inside meaningless code.
Email: a blessing and a curse
Towards the end of the 1990s, email was proliferating and while it promised to revolutionize communication, it also opened up a new entry point for viruses.
In 1999, the Melissa Virus was unleashed. It entered the user’s computer via a Word document and then emailed copies of itself to the first 50 email addresses in Microsoft Outlook. It remains one of the fastest spreading viruses and the damage cost around $80 million to fix.
And we can see now how the field of cyb3r security has evolved in these many years. Today its not possible for any organization or personal to be on internet without taking security measures. Hope u like this blog.
I want to end this blog with a brief quote:
Passwords are like underwear: don’t let people see it, change it very often, and you shouldn’t share it with strangers. So if you are on internet , activate your 6th sense.
STAY SAFE !! STAY ALERT!! JAI HIND!!
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